National Flag of Madagascar
According to aceinland, the national flag of Madagascar is composed of two horizontal stripes, the top one being red and the bottom one being green. The red stripe symbolizes sovereignty and justice, while the green stripe symbolizes hope and prosperity. In the center, there is a vertical white stripe that contains a white disk with an emblem in its center. This emblem is composed of a red shield which features a zebu head at its center. Above the shield are four yellow stars, representing Madagascar’s four provinces: Antananarivo, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, and Toamasina. On either side of the shield are two yellow spears crossed together to represent defenders of the nation’s unity and independence. Below the shield is a ribbon with “TANINDRAZANA – FAHAFAHANA” written in black lettering which translates to “Fatherland – Liberty” in English. The colors of this flag have been used to represent Madagascar since 1895 when it was colonized by France. It was officially adopted as Madagascar’s national flag on October 14th 1958 when it gained independence from France. The current flag has been unchanged since then and still serves as an important symbol for all Malagasy people today.
Presidents of Madagascar
The President of Madagascar is the head of state and government, the commander in chief of the armed forces, and the representative of the Malagasy people. The current president is Andry Rajoelina who was elected in 2018. He previously served as president from 2009 to 2014 after a military coup. Prior to his term, Marc Ravalomanana was president from 2002 to 2009. He was a successful business man before entering politics and was very popular among the people due to his policies that focused on development, education and health. Before Ravalomanana, Didier Ratsiraka held office for two terms from 1975 to 1993 and then again from 1997 to 2002. He was originally elected as part of a socialist party but eventually shifted towards more conservative policies during his second term. Before Ratsiraka, Philibert Tsiranana served as president from 1960-1972 when Madagascar gained independence from France. He was initially elected by popular vote but eventually declared himself “President for Life” which led to increased political unrest in the country. These four presidents have all been instrumental in shaping Madagascar’s politics since its independence in 1960 and are still remembered by many Malagasy people today.
Prime Ministers of Madagascar
The Prime Minister of Madagascar is the head of government and is appointed by the President. The current Prime Minister is Christian Ntsay who was appointed in 2019. Prior to his term, Olivier Mahafaly Solonandrasana served as Prime Minister from 2016-2019. He was a former mayor and was a part of the ruling party at the time. Before him, Roger Kolo served as Prime Minister from 2014-2016 when Andry Rajoelina returned to power after a military coup. Kolo had previously been a minister in Ravalomanana’s government and played an important role in helping to restore stability after the coup. Prior to Kolo, Albert Camille Vital served as Prime Minister from 2009-2014 during Ravalomanana’s presidency. He was originally appointed by Ravalomanana but eventually resigned due to political tensions within his cabinet. Before Vital, Cécile Manorohanta held office from 2002-2009 during Ravalomanana’s first term as president. She was the first female prime minister in Madagascar and focused on health, education and poverty reduction during her tenure. These five prime ministers have all been instrumental in shaping Madagascar’s politics since its independence in 1960 and are still remembered by many Malagasy people today.