Tribal Egoism and Open Power Struggles in Kenya

In August 2007, Kibaki announced his renewed candidacy for the presidency, supported by the former president D. T. arap Moi, against whose regime he won the elections in 2002 with an anti-corruption campaign. The victorious alliance NARC at the time was, however, divided. Kibaki, a member of the Kikuyu, now stood as a candidate for a new coalition, the Party of National Unity (PNU), which represented a program of economic recovery. Domestic conflicts intensified in the election campaign leading up to the presidential elections. Kibaki dissolved parliament on October 21, 2007; the election date was set for December 27, 2007. In these elections, Kibaki ran against R. Odinga, the opposition leader of the Orange Democratic Movement (ODM), a member of the Luo.

Odinga had already formed a coalition with Kibaki in 2002 and was involved in his government as minister for road construction, but resigned in 2005 when he had denied him the office of prime minister and thus greater powers. In the elections, Odinga was in the lead until shortly before the end of the counting of votes. On December 30, 2007, the electoral commission declared incumbent Kibaki the winner with a margin of 231,000 of the 8.9 million votes. Neither the PNU nor the ODM were able to win a majority in the parliamentary elections that were held at the same time. Kibaki was sworn in immediately, while the opposition challenged the result for election fraud. Serious unrest broke out in the spring of 2008 and spread across the country, killing over 1,500. Around 300,000 internally displaced persons were housed in camps up to the summer of 2008. After international mediation efforts, in which the former UN Secretary General K. Annan officially intervened on January 29, 2008 on behalf of the African Union, a compromise on power sharing between Kibaki and Odinga was reached on February 28, 2008. Visit for Kenya massages and endless savannas.

On March 18, 2008, the parliament approved the power-sharing in the form of a coalition government and approved a constitutional amendment that regulated the creation of the office of prime minister until the 2013 elections. On April 13, 2008, President Kibaki presented the new coalition government under Prime Minister Odinga.

The internal political situation remained unstable under the conflict-laden governing coalition. On August 4, 2010, around 68.6% of the electorate voted in a referendum for a new constitution. In the run-up to the vote, there were repeated mass rallies by opponents of the constitution, in which several people were killed. In the summer of 2011, hundreds of thousands of Somalis fled a drought and famine to Kenya. Several high-ranking politicians, including Finance Minister U. Kenyatta, were questioned in September 2011 before the International Criminal Court in The Hague (ICC) about their role during the 2007 riots. The Kenyan government fell out over the ICC’s investigation: President Kibaki wanted to suspend the investigation, Prime Minister Odinga supported them against it. In October 2011, Kenya intervened militarily in Somalia to fight the radical Islamic Al-Shabab militia.

After the ICC brought charges in January 2012, U. Kenyatta resigned from his ministerial office but remained deputy head of government. On March 4, 2013, as a candidate for the Jubilee Coalition, he won the presidential elections in the first ballot. At Kenyatta 50.07% of votes accounted for, according to the Election Commission. R. Odinga, candidate for the coalition for Reform and Democracy, won 43.31% of the vote. After allegations of manipulation, the Supreme Court ordered recounts in several polling stations on March 25, 2013. On March 30, 2013, it confirmed Kenyatta’s election victory who was sworn in on April 9, 2013 in the presidency. In the parliamentary elections held at the same time, the Jubilee Coalition received most of the mandates. On September 21, 2013, terrorists occupied a shopping mall in Nairobi and took hostages. After bloody fighting, special forces took control of the shopping center on September 24, 2013 and freed the surviving hostages. At least 72 people were killed in the attack, which al-Shabab claimed to have committed. There were also serious attacks in 2014, in April and May in Mombasa and Nairobi, where over 20 people were killed. Further series of attacks in the coastal region near the island of Lamu resulted in over 100 deaths in June / July 2014. In October 2014, President Kenyatta appeared to a hearing before the International Criminal Court in The Hague over possible responsibility for the unrest after the 2007 election. Kenyatta stepped down for the two-day hearing. On December 5, 2014, the trial was discontinued due to lack of evidence due to a lack of cooperation from the Kenyan authorities. The security situation remained tense due to the activities of the al-Shabab militias, which were trying to force the withdrawal of Kenyan troops from Somalia. On April 2, 2015, 148 people were killed in an attack by al-Shabab on the Garissa University in the north-east of the country. The attackers targeted and killed Christian students.

At the beginning of May 2016, Kenya announced that it would close the Dadaab and Kakuma camps, which are mostly inhabited by Somali refugees, as soon as possible. Dadaab is considered the largest refugee camp in the world. The government had repeatedly accused the terrorist militia al-Shabab of smuggling fighters disguised as refugees into tent cities that have existed for 25 years in order to carry out attacks in Kenya. A few weeks before the planned closure of Dadaab at the end of November 2016, the government postponed it at the request of the UN refugee agency.

On August 8, 2017, presidential, parliamentary and regional elections were held. In the run-up to the elections, the President Kenyatta supportive camp had come together to form the Jubilee Party of Kenya (JPK). The long-time opposition leader R. Odinga relied on the National Super Alliance (NASA). As early as 2016, there were protests by the opposition over alleged corruption in the Kenyan electoral authority (Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission, IEBC). Other points of contention between the government and the opposition were issues of voter registration and the organizational implementation of the ballot box. According to the electoral commission, incumbent U. Kenyatta went emerged victorious from the presidential election, in which eight candidates participated, gaining 54.3% of the vote. The NASA candidate R. Odinga received 44.7% of the vote. This raised the charge of electoral fraud and challenged the election legally. On September 1, 2017, the election was canceled by the highest court due to serious deficiencies in the implementation. At the same time, the court ordered new elections to be held within 60 days. The electoral authority initially set October 17, 2017 as the date for the new election. It was later postponed to October 26, 2017. On October 10, 2017, R. Odinga, who criticized the lack of reforms regarding the electoral process, withdrew his candidacy. According to the electoral commission, it was U. Kenyatta wasre-elected with more than 98% of the votes. NASA and R. Odinga did not recognize the validity of the election. Nevertheless, on November 28th, Kenyatta. In 2017 he took the oath of office as president.

Tribal Egoism and Open Power Struggles in Kenya